Quite often, people throughout their lives affect a variety of infections. When a person overcomes the disease, doctors usually prescribe medication, which is aimed at the normalization of the various functions of the body. In particular, vital to suppress pathogenic bacteria, pathogenic fungi, microbes used antibacterial therapy. Usually doctors for its use of antibiotics. It is extremely important to select an appropriate drug, so as not to cause adverse reactions in the patient and does not damage the cells of the organism. The approach to the choice of antibiotic should be purely individual, so a skilled physician should have to know the basic principles of antimicrobial therapy.
By selective effect on microbial cells antibiotics are divided into four main groups. The first group includes penicillins, cephalosporins, bacitracin, cycloserine, ristomycin that distinguishes a bactericidal mode of action. In other words, these antibacterial agents affect cell wall synthesis. The second group consists oleandomycin, novobiocin, poliiksiny that violate the permeability of cell membranes of pathogens. The third group are the antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis and function of the ribosome – chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides. Finally, the fourth group are antineoplastic antibiotics, which affect the metabolism of nucleic acids. An example of these antibacterial drugs can serve as rifampicin.
Antibiotics are designed to combat each specific pathogen, so they are distinguished by a different mechanism of action. It can be both bactericidal and bacteriostatic. During the antibiotic treatment is important to know the sensitivity of the pathogen to the selected drug. In other words, after administration to a patient a therapeutic dose of the antibiotic necessary to achieve a drug concentration in blood, which would delay the growth of microbes. It is also important, where is the microbe was isolated: from urine, sputum, pus, blood, mucous membranes. If the administration of the drug is observed low sensitivity of the microorganism, the dosage of the antibiotic should be enhanced. In severe disease it is sometimes necessary to use a combination of several drugs.
In addition to creating the necessary therapeutic concentration necessary to consider a toxic effect of antibiotics and other drugs used for organs and tissues. For example, while the appointment of indirect anticoagulants and tetracyclines significantly increases the risk of bleeding. In addition, the choice of antibiotic for the treatment of infectious patient must always take into account the individual characteristics of the patient – the state of immunity, age, co-morbidities.
According to the principle of antibiotic therapy, the antibiotics differ spectrum antimicrobial effects, which can also be divided into several groups. Such drugs as lincosamides, fuzidin-, biosynthetic penicillins, vancomycin, oxacillin act only on gram-positive bacteria. With respect to Gram-negative organisms are active polymyxin, aztreonam. There is a large group of antibiotics, which affects both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These include cephalosporins, tetracycline, ampicillin, aminoglycosides, carbenicillin, fosfomycin, macrolides and other drugs. In separate group anti antibacterials: florimitsin, rifampin, streptomycin. Finally, it should be noted antifungal antibiotics: Diflucan, levorin, ankotil, ketoconazole, nystatin, griseofulvin.
As a rule, all of the properties and dictate a doctor right choice of antibiotic to treat the infection. Sometimes there are cases when, during human immunodeficiency hit two or more infectious agents. This so-called generalized (very heavy) forms of destruction. Find one antibiotic to which all would have been susceptible pathogens is virtually impossible. Then assigned a combination of several drugs to enhance the bactericidal effect. It is extremely important to consider the compatibility of antibacterial agents to prevent damage to cells and tissues of the body.
Thus, the main task of the physician in antibiotic therapy – to destroy pathogenic infection and do not harm the body. Take care of yourself!